Magistrates, Reconsideration, and Writs, Oh My!

Every once in a while a case comes along that is just a treasure trove of procedural goodness. It’s even nicer when you happen to know the prevailing party, and know the rules as applied helped the good guys. The case is Seigler v. Bell, Case No. 5D14-642 (Fla. 5th DCA Sept. 19, 2014)[.pdf]. The underlying dispute is a complicated child custody battle between a Mother and Grandmother. While there is no need to go into the nitty gritty of the underlying facts of the dispute, the decision today provides great insight into several issues of broad application: (a) The role of magistrates in proceedings before a trial court, (b) the important differences between rehearing and reconsideration at the trial court level, and (c) jurisdiction over writs of certiorari and mandamus. Let’s unpack each in turn.

Magistrates and Finality

The opinion lays out in detail the legal and procedural effect of an issue being heard by a magistrate. Most importantly:

While a magistrate’s report is more than a mere recommendation, it is not a final judgment, as magistrates lack the authority to enter final judgments….Even when no exceptions are filed, the trial court is “duty bound to examine and consider the evidence for itself and to make a judicial determination as to whether[,] under the law and facts[,] the court is justified in entering the judgment recommended” by the magistrate…. Merely “approving” the magistrate’s report is not sufficient to effect an appealable final judgment.

Slip. Op. at 7-8, citations omitted. In this case, both parties did file exceptions, and the trial court ruled on them, but the effect of that ruling was not a final judgment. The trial court rejected one party’s exceptions and accepted some of the other party’s exceptions, but the resulting order on the recommendation merely stated “the Report … is hereby modified….” Because the trial court “modified” the magistrate’s report but did not enter judgment, the order modifying the report (“the Modification Order”) was not a final order.

Rehearing v. Reconsideration

Whether the Modification Order was a final order is important in this case, because it is determinative of the next issue the appellate court decided — whether the Grandmother’s “Motion for Rehearing or Reconsideration” (the “Reconsideration Motion”) was timely and authorized. The Mother’s Petition sought review of the trial court’s order granting the Motion for Rehearing or Reconsideration. The Reconsideration Motion was filed 12 days after the trial court entered its order modifying the magistrate’s report and recommendation. If the Modification Order had been a final judgment, then it would be subject to a Rule 1.530 motion for rehearing. But then the Reconsideration Order would have been untimely, because at the time Rule 1.530 required that a motion for rehearing be served no later than 10 days after entry of judgment. (The rule was since amended to allow 15 days for service of a motion for rehearing).

The Court held that since the Modification Order was not a final order, the trial court had the inherent power to reconsider its interlocutory order at any time. Op. at 9. The court explained:

Motions for rehearing and motions for reconsideration are two distinct motions and, though they are often confused, they do not overlap. Motions for “rehearing” pursuant to Florida Rule of Civil Procedure 1.530 apply only to final judgments and “those orders that partake of the character of a final judgment, i.e., orders that complete the judicial labor on a portion of the cause.” Motions for “reconsideration” apply to nonfinal, interlocutory orders, and are based on a trial court’s “inherent authority to reconsider and, if deemed appropriate, alter or retract any of its nonfinal rulings prior to entry of the final judgment or order terminating an action . . . .” … Nomenclature does not control, and motions for either “rehearing” or “reconsideration” aimed at final judgments shall be treated as rule 1.530 motions for rehearing, while motions aimed at nonfinal orders shall
be treated as motions for reconsideration.

Op. at 9-10, citations omitted. The Court also emphasized that the trial court had the power to sua sponte reconsider its own interlocutory orders. Op. at 10.

Certiorari, Mandamus, and Appealable Non-Final Orders

Because the Court had the power to reconsider its interlocutory order, the next question it considered was whether the order granting reconsideration in the Grandmother’s favor (“the Reconsideration Order”) was an appealable order. The Court didn’t even look at whether the Reconsideration Order was a final order, because it left open further proceedings and still did not take on the tenor of a judgment of the Court.

The Court considered but rejected the argument that the Reconsideration Order could be classified as an appealable nonfinal order under Rule 9.130(a)(3)(C)(iii), which allows for immediate appeal of orders determining the right to child custody in family law matters. It is not clear whether the Mother made this argument, but the Court did the right thing in considering it in any event, because Rule 9.040(c) allows that “if a party seeks an improper remedy, the cause shall be treated as if the proper remedy had been sought.” Fla. R. App. P. 9.040(c). However, the Court concluded that the order does not determine the right to custody, but “merely indicates that more evidence will be considered before the trial court determines Mother’s motion to revoke the prior temporary custody order.” Op. at 10. It’s a decision to take more evidence, not a determination of custody, and therefore not an appealable interlocutory order.

The court also considered whether the Mother’s Petition entitled her to the relief requested, certiorari or mandamus relief. Both certioari and mandamus are extraordinary appellate remedies, because they allow the appellate court to step in and rule on the propriety of an interlocutory order. The Court dismissed the Petition for Writ of Certiorari for lack of jurisdiction and denied the Petition for Writ of Mandamus.

The Mother argued in favor of certiorari review because, based on her view that the Rehearing Motion was untimely, the trial court was without jurisdiction to entertain it. The Court set out the standard test for certiorari relief:

“To obtain relief by way of a writ of certiorari, a petitioner must establish: 1) a departure from the essential requirements of the law, 2) a resulting material injury for the remainder of the trial, and 3) the lack of an adequate remedy on appeal.”… The second and third prongs of this three-part standard of review are often combined into the concept of “irreparable harm,” and they are jurisdictional.

Applying this test — and its prior procedural analysis that the trial court had the power to reconsider the Modification Order and enter the Reconsideration Order — the Court found that the Reconsideration Order neither departed from the essential requirements of law or caused irreparable harm. The Court therefore held that it lacked jurisdiction to grant the requested certiorari relief.

The request for mandamus relief likely asked the Court to order the trial court to enter final judgment on the Modification Order. As the Court explained:

“Mandamus is a common law remedy used to enforce an established legal right by compelling a person in an official capacity to perform an indisputable ministerial duty required by law.” … “To state a cause of action for mandamus, a party must allege a clear legal right to performance of the act requested, an indisputable legal duty, and the lack of an adequate remedy at law.”

Op. at 11 (citations omitted). In this case, because the trial court had the power to reconsider its own interlocutory order, the Mother could not prove she was entitled to compel the trial court to enforce an established legal right to entry of judgment in her favor. The Court therefore denied the petition for writ of mandamus.

Kudos

Congratulations again to my friend Vicki Levin Eskin of Levy & Associates, P.A. for her appellate win! Vicki represents the Grandmother in this case pro bono, to boot (that means free, folks).

Full Disclosure: I assisted Vicki pro bono in responding to the appellate motion for rehearing or rehearing en banc filed by the other side. I am pleased to report that the court denied rehearing today, so the decision is now final.

New Issues a No Go on Rehearing

The Fourth DCA recently issued an opinion on rehearing in which it reiterated a pretty basic, but nonetheless important point: If you didn’t raise an issue in your initial brief, you can’t raise it for the first time on a motion for rehearing before the appellate court. See Philip Morris USA, Inc. v. Naugle, No. 4D10-1607 (Dec. 12, 2012) [.pdf]. The lesson, of course, is that if it is important enough to argue it all, an issue must go in your initial brief. Remember, Rule 9.330 requires that a party seeking rehearing point out “with particularity the points that…the court has overlooked or misapprehended in its decision.” The court cannot misapprehend or overlook that which a party never argued to begin with!

Rehearing: A Comparison of 9.330 and 1.530

The First District Court of Appeal recently explained the different standards for rehearing at the appellate level versus the trial level under the Florida rules, and it’s an important distinction for both trial and appellate practitioners to keep in mind. The take home lesson: Your last chance at issue preservation is a motion for rehearing, particularly for cases decided at early stages.

The case is Fitchner v. Lifesouth Community Blood Centers, Inc., ___ So.3d ___, No. 1D10–2019 (Fla. 1st DCA April 13, 2012) [.pdf]. Against the background of a complicated procedural history, the Court sets out a terrific discussion of the rehearing standards. The Fitchners sought to amend their complaint after an appellate remand dismissing their complaint, and the trial court denied their motion. With new counsel, they moved the trial court for rehearing, making a new and (as the trial court admitted) “meritorious” argument as to why the amended complaint should be allowed. The trial court nonetheless denied the motion because the argument was being raised for the first time, and had not been “overlooked” or “misapprehended.”

The First DCA ruled the Fitchners had not waived their argument. The Court started its analysis, as we all should, with the text of the rules, in this case a comparison of the text of the appellate rehearing rule, Rule 9.330(a), with the trial-level rule, Rule 1.530(a). The Appellate Rule requires that the movant:

“state with particularity the points of law or fact that, in the opinion of the movant, the court has overlooked or misapprehended in its decision, and shall not present issues not previously raised in the proceeding .”

The Civil Procedure rule, by contrast, states:

“[o]n a motion for rehearing of matters heard without a jury, including summary judgments, the court may open the judgment if one has been entered, take additional testimony, and enter a new judgment.”

Reading these rules side-by-side, the Court concluded:

“It is clear from a comparison of the text of these two rules that the standard to be applied in trial courts is much broader than the one that applies on appeal. Rule 1.530 is not limited to a mistake the court has made. To the contrary, rehearing may be granted in an appropriate case to prevent an injustice that would be caused by an error or omission by one of the lawyers.”

Trial practitioners should beware, however: Just because the trial court has the power to consider a newly raised issue on a motion for rehearing made pursuant to Rule 1.530, does not mean it is required to do so. It is still best to raise every issue in your original motion. But the trial court did have the power to consider the new argument raised, and as a result the new issue was preserved for appellate review. The Court went on to reverse the dismissal based upon the legal argument raised and rejected in the Fitchners’ motion for rehearing.

As an aside, the decision also contains helpful analysis of the law of the case doctrine. More on law of the case in a future post.